Water: Do not drink bottled water, but whenever possible favor tap water, which is safe and controlled.

Bottled mineral water might have compounds not suitable for everybody or for all stages of life and should be used for particular needs or for the specific treatment of some pathologies. The use of bottled mineral waters represents an unjustified cost and an enormous source of pollution due to plastic bottles and transport. Tap water legally defined as “meant for human use or drinkable” has the physical and chemical characteristics defined by WHO and by European and national laws. Drinkable water has a fundamental role in giving mineral nutriments: many studies have demonstrated that the harder waters are the less people are exposed to the risk of cardiovascular and kidney disease. The use of mineral waters is not useful for the primary prevention of kidney stones. Water is a precious common good and must not be wasted: both leaks along the aqueduct pipes and all domestic waste must be eliminated.


1. United Nations Environment Programme (2021). From Pollution to Solution: A global assessment of marine litter and plastic pollution. Nairobi.
2. Muhib MI, Uddin MK, Rahman MM, Malafaia G. Occurrence of microplastics in tap and bottled water, and food packaging: A narrative review on current knowledge. Sci Total Environ. 2023 Mar 20;865:161274. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161274. Epub 2022 Dec 29. PMID: 36587673.
3. Aggazzotto G, Agodi A, Carreri V, Conversano M, De Donno A, Fallico R, Faggioli A, Ferrante M, Francia F, Monarca S, Petronio MG, Sciacca S, Signorelli C, Vinceti M. (A cura del gruppo di lavoro Ambiente e salute della Società Italiana di Igiene). Gestione delle risorse idriche in Italia, Società Editrice Universo, Roma, 2013.
4. Bottled water for all, all the time? Doctors should follow some US cities in discouraging bottled water consumption. Douglas Kamerow. BMJ 2016;352:i1214 doi: 10.1136/bmj.i1214 Published 29 February 2016.
5. Ciao Fossili, Luca Lombroso, Edizioni Arte Stampa 2016



Attention. Please note that these items are provided only for information and are not intended as a substitute for consultation with a clinician. Patients with any specific questions about the items on this list or their individual situation should consult their clinician.