Nutrition: Limit the foods of animal origin and industrial production. Give preference to fruits, vegetables, whole cereals and legumes, better if fresh, from your local area, and cultivated according to current season and in a biological way.

The diet must be healthy, varied, balanced and moderate following the general guidelines of the so-called “Food Pyramid”, which involves less use of resources and less pollution (“Ecological footprint”). A vegetarian change would not only reduce overall mortality by 6-10%, but would be able to act on climate change with a 25% decrease in CO2. Limiting the consumption of ultra-processed industrial foods is also a healthy and environmentally friendly choice. The citizen, as a responsible consumer, must be aware of the fact that the agro-food production chain, in all its phases, from production to distribution to consumption, is responsible for important consequences also at a social level (from food sophistication to illegal hiring, from intensive monocultures to drought in large areas of the planet). Limiting the consumption of meat, for example, represents both an advantage in terms of health for humans beings and an advantage for the environment (about 15,000 liters of water are consumed to produce one kg of beef).


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2. Shulze MB et al.: Food based dietary patterns and chronic disease prevention. BMJ 2018; 361: k2396.doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2396
3. Position Paper Pesticidi, Pratiche Agricole, Ambiente e Salute
4. Ciot M.,Consumare carne. Problematiche ambientali, sociali, salutistiche, Editore ICU, 2016
5. Bevilacqua P., Il cibo e la terra. Agricoltura, ambiente e salute negli scenari del nuovo millennio, Donzelli Editore 2018
6. Gentilini P., Pesticidi: pratiche agricole, ambiente e salute in: Di Ciaula A., Murgia V., Petronio M.G. Inquinamento ambientale e salute, Aboca Edizioni,2019
7. CREA. Linee guida per una sana alimentazione, revisione 2018.



Attention. Please note that these items are provided only for information and are not intended as a substitute for consultation with a clinician. Patients with any specific questions about the items on this list or their individual situation should consult their clinician.