An oral dose of vitamin K is not recommended in term newborns who received an intramuscular shot at birth

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Administration of a single i.m. dose of vitamin K within the first 6 hours of life is enough to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborns. If not given (e.g., due to parental refusal), oral administration must be recommended, which is less effective and should therefore be continued for the next 13 weeks, particularly in breastfed infants, since breast milk has a low concentration of vitamin K.


1. Vitamin K and the Newborn Infant. Hand I, Noble L, Abrams SA; AAP Committee on Fetus and Newborn, Section on Breastfeeding, Committee on Nutrition. Pediatrics. 2022;149(3):e2021056036.
2. Position Statement: Guidelines for vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns. A joint statement of the Canadian Pediatric Society and the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Ng E, Loewy AD. Canadian Family Physician 2018; 64(10): 736-739.
3. Belgian Consensus Recommendations to Prevent Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in the Term and Preterm Infant. Fiesack S, Smits A, Rayyan M et al. Nutrients. 2021 Nov 16;13(11):4109. doi: 10.3390/nu13114109. PMID: 34836364; PMCID: PMC8621883.
4. Refusal of Intramuscular Vitamin K by Parents of Newborns: A Review -Hosp Pediatr 2020 Mar;10(3):286-294. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2019-0228.Epub 2020 Feb 4.1,2Eugene D Shapiro PMID:32019806 Jaspreet Loyal PMCID: PMC7041551 DOI: 10.1542/hpeds.2019-0228



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