The search for anti-insular cell antibodies (ICA) and anti-insulin antibodies (IAA) should not be performed in the case of suspected late-onset autoimmune diabetes (LADA) or gestational diabetes mellitus. Search instead simultaneously for anti-GAD, anti-IA2 and anti-ZnT8 antibodies.

Type of practice

Laboratory tests

The finding of even one antibody positivity among anti-GAD, anti-IA2 and anti-ZnT8 is a diagnostic criterion of LADA and suggests an autoimmune pathogenesis in gestational diabetes mellitus.


1. American Diabetes Association (2009) Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus (Position Statement). Diabetes Care 32(Suppl. 1):S62–S67
2. Buzzetti R, Zampetti S, Maddaloni E (2017) Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes: current knowledge and implications for management. Nat Rev Endocrinol 13:674-686
3. de Leiva A, Mauricio D, Corcoy R (2007) Diabetes-Related Autoantibodies and Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes Care 30 (Suppl 2):S127-33

Attention. Please note that these items are provided only for information and are not intended as a substitute for consultation with a clinician. Patients with any specific questions about the items on this list or their individual situation should consult their clinician.