Don’t test new skills and procedures directly on patients, especially if not trained nor tutored.

The most used teaching method for medical skills include only observation followed by practical activity on patients, without any simulation. Numerous studies demonstrated the potential harm on the patients of this model, compared to the possible simulation models available. We have an ethical motivation: “never on the patient for the fist time, if not strictly necessary.”


1. Choosing Wisely Italy. Cinque raccomandazioni della Società Italiana di Pedagogia Medica (SIPEM). [Internet] 2015.
2. Granry JC, Moll MC. État de l’art (national et international) en matière de pratiques de simulation dans le domaine de la santé dans le cadre du développement professionnel continu (DPC) et de la prévention des risques associés aux soins. Rapport de Mission HAS du 10 janvier 2012
3. Cook DA, Hamstra SJ, Brydges R, Zendejas B, Szostek JH, Wang AT, et al. Comparative effectiveness of instructional design features in simulation-based education: systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Teach 2013; 35:e867-98. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.714886.



Attention. Please note that these items are provided only for information and are not intended as a substitute for consultation with a clinician. Patients with any specific questions about the items on this list or their individual situation should consult their clinician.