Do not follow Occidental style diets with high environmental impact. Only healthy diets such as the Mediterranean diet can guarantee the physical health of individuals and of the planet.

Type of practice

Other treatments

Topic Area

Clinical Nutrition

Food has an impact on environmental resources, in terms of consumption of water, soil, energy, as well as gas production, acidification and eutrophication. The “Occidental diets” (full of refined foods, animal fats, sugars and low in fiber) are those that involve the greatest environmental burden, as well as those that favor the onset of metabolic, cardiovascular and oncological diseases. Conversely, “healthy diets” (mainly plant-based – whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruit – with good fish content, moderate amounts of meat – preferring white to red ones – and with vegetable fats) have the advantage of being protective for the health of individuals and more respectful of the resources used for the production of food to be consumed.


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2. Clark MA, Springmann M, Hill J, Tilman D: Multiple Health and Environmental Impacts of Foods. PNAS, November 12, 2019; 116: 23357–23362.
3. Walther Willet et al.: Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT–Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems. Lancet 2019; 393: 447–92
4. Fanzo J, Bellows AL, Spiker ML, Thorne-Lyman AL, Bloem MW: The importance of food systems and the environment for nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2021;113:7–16.
5. Kovacs B, Miller L, Heller M, Rose D: The carbon footprint of dietary guidelines around the world: a seven country modeling study, Nutrition Journal (2021) 20:15



Attention. Please note that these items are provided only for information and are not intended as a substitute for consultation with a clinician. Patients with any specific questions about the items on this list or their individual situation should consult their clinician.